如何在Linux下添加硬盘并挂载?

1.进入linux

yun@yun-desktop:/work$?sudo fdisk -l ? ? ? ??? ? ? ?//查看系统硬盘配置
Disk /dev/sda: 21.5 GB, 21474836480 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x0001efb8
?? Device Boot ? ? ?Start ? ? ? ? End ? ? ?Blocks ? Id ?System
/dev/sda1 ? * ? ? ? ? ? 1 ? ? ? ? 973 ? ? 7811072 ? 83 ?Linux
Partition 1 does not end on cylinder boundary.
/dev/sda2 ? ? ? ? ? ? 973 ? ? ? ?2611 ? ?13157377 ? ?5 ?Extended
/dev/sda5 ? ? ? ? ? ? 973 ? ? ? ?1222 ? ? 1998848 ? 82 ?Linux swap / Solaris
/dev/sda6 ? ? ? ? ? ?1222 ? ? ? ?2611 ? ?11157504 ? 83 ?Linux
Disk /dev/sdb: 21.5 GB,?21474836480 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x720e532d
?Device Boot ? ? ?Start ? ? ? ? End ? ? ?Blocks ? Id ?System
可见/dev/sdb就是添加的硬盘
2.对硬盘/dev/sdb进行分区
1、划分为扩展分区
yun@yun-desktop:/work$?sudo fdisk /dev/sdb
WARNING: DOS-compatible mode is deprecated. It’s strongly recommended to
?? ? ? ? switch off the mode (command ‘c’) and change display units to
?? ? ? ? sectors (command ‘u’).
Command (m for help): m
Command action
?? a ? toggle a bootable flag
?? b ? edit bsd disklabel
?? c ? toggle the dos compatibility flag
?? d ? delete a partition?注:这是删除一个分区的动作
?? l ? list known partition types ?注:l是列出分区类型,以供我们设置相应分区的类型;
?? m ? print this menu??注:m?是列出帮助信息;
?? n ? add a new partition?注:添加一个分区
?? o ? create a new empty DOS partition table
?? p ? print the partition table?注:p列出分区表;
?? q ? quit without saving changes?注:不保存退出;
?? s ? create a new empty Sun disklabel
?? t ? change a partition’s system id ?注:t?改变分区类型;
?? u ? change display/entry units
?? v ? verify the partition table
?? w ? write table to disk and exit?注:把分区表写入硬盘并退出;
?? x ? extra functionality (experts only)?注:扩展应用,专家功能;
其实我们常用的只有注有中文的,其它的功能我们不常用;x扩展功能,也不是常用的;一般的情况下只要懂得 d l m p q t w 就行了
列出当前操作硬盘的分区情况,使用p:
Command(m for help):p
Disk /dev/sdb: 21.5 GB, 21474836480 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x720e532d
?Device Boot ? ? ?Start ? ? ? ? End ? ? ?Blocks ? Id ?System
通过fdisk的d指令来删除一个分区
Command(m for help):d
Partition number (1-6): 6 注:我想删除 sda6 ,就在这里输入 6 ;
警告:删除分区时要小心,请看好分区的序号,如果您删除了扩展分区,扩展分区之下的逻辑分区都会删除;所以操作时一定要小心;如果知道自己操作错了,请不要惊慌,用q不保存退出;切记切记!!!!在分区操作错了之时,千万不要输入w保存退出!!!
Command (m for help): n
Command action
?? e ? extended ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ??//选择e,将硬盘sdb格式化为扩展分区
?? p ? primary partition (1-4)
e
Partition number (1-4): 1
First cylinder (1-2610, default 1): ? ? ? ??//敲回车,即为默认配置注:这个就是分区的Start 值;这里最好直接按回车,如果您输入了一个非默认的数字,会造成空间浪费;
Using default value 1
Last cylinder, +cylinders or +size{K,M,G} (1-2610, default 2610): ? ? ? ?//敲回车,即为默认配置
Using default value 2610
Command (m for help): w ? ? ??? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ??? //保存配置
The partition table has been altered!
Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
Syncing disks.
到这里为止,只是将新硬盘格式化为扩展分区,但扩展分区还需要再格式化并添加逻辑分区才可用!!!!
所以还要再继续分区一次
2、划分为逻辑分区
yun@yun-desktop:/work$?sudo fdisk /dev/sdb
WARNING: DOS-compatible mode is deprecated. It’s strongly recommended to
?? ? ? ? switch off the mode (command ‘c’) and change display units to
?? ? ? ? sectors (command ‘u’).
Command (m for help): m
Command action
?? a ? toggle a bootable flag
?? b ? edit bsd disklabel
?? c ? toggle the dos compatibility flag
?? d ? delete a partition
?? l ? list known partition types
?? m ? print this menu
?? n ? add a new partition
?? o ? create a new empty DOS partition table
?? p ? print the partition table
?? q ? quit without saving changes
?? s ? create a new empty Sun disklabel
?? t ? change a partition’s system id
?? u ? change display/entry units
?? v ? verify the partition table
?? w ? write table to disk and exit
?? x ? extra functionality (experts only)
Command (m for help): n
Command action
?? l ? logical (5 or over) ? ? ? ??? ? ? ? ? ??? //格式化为逻辑分区
?? p ? primary partition (1-4)
l
First cylinder (1-2610, default 1):
Using default value 1
Last cylinder, +cylinders or +size{K,M,G} (1-2610, default 2610):
Using default value 2610
Command (m for help): w
The partition table has been altered!
Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
Syncing disks.
yun@yun-desktop:/work$?sudo fdisk -l
Disk /dev/sda: 21.5 GB, 21474836480 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x0001efb8
?? Device Boot ? ? ?Start ? ? ? ? End ? ? ?Blocks ? Id ?System
/dev/sda1 ? * ? ? ? ? ? 1 ? ? ? ? 973 ? ? 7811072 ? 83 ?Linux
Partition 1 does not end on cylinder boundary.
/dev/sda2 ? ? ? ? ? ? 973 ? ? ? ?2611 ? ?13157377 ? ?5 ?Extended
/dev/sda5 ? ? ? ? ? ? 973 ? ? ? ?1222 ? ? 1998848 ? 82 ?Linux swap / Solaris
/dev/sda6 ? ? ? ? ? ?1222 ? ? ? ?2611 ? ?11157504 ? 83 ?Linux
Disk /dev/sdb: 21.5 GB,?21474836480 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x720e532d
?? Device Boot ? ? ?Start ? ? ? ? End ? ? ?Blocks ? Id ?System
/dev/sdb1 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 1 ? ? ? ?2610 ? ?20964793+ ? 5 ?Extended
/dev/sdb5 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 1 ? ? ? ?2610 ? ?20964762 ? 83 ?Linux
3、格式化分区为ext3格式
yun@yun-desktop:/work$?sudo mkfs.ext3 /dev/sdb5
mke2fs 1.41.11 (14-Mar-2010)
Filesystem label=
OS type: Linux
Block size=4096 (log=2)
Fragment size=4096 (log=2)
Stride=0 blocks, Stripe width=0 blocks
1310720 inodes, 5241190 blocks
262059 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user
First data block=0
Maximum filesystem blocks=0
160 block groups
32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group
8192 inodes per group
Superblock backups stored on blocks:
32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912, 819200, 884736, 1605632, 2654208,
4096000
Writing inode tables: done
Creating journal (32768 blocks): done
Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done
This filesystem will be automatically checked every 25 mounts or
180 days, whichever comes first. ?Use tune2fs -c or -i to override.
yun@yun-desktop:/work$?sudo mkdir /media/sdb ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?//新建一个目录,用于挂载硬盘sdb5
yun@yun-desktop:/work$?sudo mount /dev/sdb5 /media/sdb?或者 ? ? ???//sdb5是可用的逻辑分区
yun@yun-desktop:/work$?sudo mount -t ext3 -o rw /dev/sdb5 /media/sdb
yun@yun-desktop:/work$?df -lh
Filesystem ? ? ? ? ? ?Size ?Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/sda1 ? ? ? ? ? ? 7.4G ?2.5G ?4.6G ?35% /
none ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?245M ?264K ?245M ? 1% /dev
none ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?249M ?252K ?249M ? 1% /dev/shm
none ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?249M ? 96K ?249M ? 1% /var/run
none ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?249M ? ? 0 ?249M ? 0% /var/lock
none ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?249M ? ? 0 ?249M ? 0% /lib/init/rw
/dev/sda6 ? ? ? ? ? ? ?11G ?465M ?9.5G ? 5% /work
/dev/sdb5 ? ? ? ? ? ? ?20G ?173M ? 19G ? 1% /media/sdb
yun@yun-desktop:/work$?sudo fdisk -l
Disk /dev/sda: 21.5 GB, 21474836480 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x0001efb8
?? Device Boot ? ? ?Start ? ? ? ? End ? ? ?Blocks ? Id ?System
/dev/sda1 ? * ? ? ? ? ? 1 ? ? ? ? 973 ? ? 7811072 ? 83 ?Linux
Partition 1 does not end on cylinder boundary.
/dev/sda2 ? ? ? ? ? ? 973 ? ? ? ?2611 ? ?13157377 ? ?5 ?Extended
/dev/sda5 ? ? ? ? ? ? 973 ? ? ? ?1222 ? ? 1998848 ? 82 ?Linux swap / Solaris
/dev/sda6 ? ? ? ? ? ?1222 ? ? ? ?2611 ? ?11157504 ? 83 ?Linux
Disk /dev/sdb: 21.5 GB,?21474836480 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x720e532d
?? Device Boot ? ? ?Start ? ? ? ? End ? ? ?Blocks ? Id ?System
/dev/sdb1 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 1 ? ? ? ?2610 ? ?20964793+ ? 5 ?Extended
/dev/sdb5 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 1 ? ? ? ?2610 ? ?20964762 ? 83 ?Linux ? ? ? ? ?//可用的逻辑分区sdb5
3.修改系统配置文件/etc/fstab
将/dev/sdb5盘挂载到了/media/sdb下面,在文件/etc/fstab最后一行添加
/dev/sdb5 /media/sdb ext3? defaults 0 0
此时,系统启动时会自动挂载该分区,否则,只要重启linux系统,都要手动挂载硬盘。
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